Required & Recommended gear for a weekend winter cabin camping trip with daytime activities out in the snow.
It is important to bring enough clothing to stay comfortable in a variety of possible conditions. Layering is critical, as it allows for adjustment to different weather and levels of activity, from strenuous mid-day skiing to standing on top of a mountain in high wind. NO COTTON. Cotton is a negative insulator when wet by snow or perspiration. We strongly recommend midweight and expedition weight polypropylene (sometimes referred to as Capilene or a "wicking" fabric) as an inner layer.
- 1 Wool hat or equivalent
- A fleece hat with ear flaps is great; a fleece balaclava is really nice to sleep in, but somewhat light during the day (use a heavy one or bring a hat as well). Having a hat that is windproof can be nice on windy days to keep your ears warm.
- 1 face mask (recommended)
- 1 neck gaiter (optional, can be used as a face mask)
- 2 - 3 upper insulating layers
- An upper insulating layer covers the torso and both arms. 1 layer is the equivalent of a heavy sweater or jacket. A half layer could be polypropylene or wool long underwear (midweight to heavy). NO COTTON, as cotton offers no insulation when wet. Examples: Fleece sweater (1), Heavy wool sweater (1), Long-sleeve wool shirt (1/2), pile jacket (1), expedition-weight polypro top (1). A sleeveless vest is acceptable as one insulating layer provided it is layered inside another layer and windproof shell.
- 1 upper rain/wind shell
- This should not be insulated, but should be big enough to serve as an outer shell over several inner layers. If you've got a fancy-fabric one like Gore-tex, great! This is what you will typically use during the day when you are cross country skiing, or other hard exercise. There are now many companies that sell waterproof breathable jackets for fairly cheap, so avoid non-breathable shells. They will trap moisture next to your body during day time activities, which will make you cold at night.
- 1 winter parka with hood (optional)
- Down or synthetic fill is fine. Should be roomy, so as to fit over inner layers. A parent's parka might be a good choice. This is what we call an "uber" layer. After a day of activity, when you have come back to camp to sit down and start dinner, you will put this on to stay warm.
- 1 - 2 lower insulating layers
- A lower insulating layer covers the legs with the equivalent of a wool sweater in thickness. Do not discount these layers. The legs provide a lot of surface area for heat loss, and these layers are very important for keeping your feet warm. Examples: Fleece pants (1), Expedition-weight polypropylene long underwear (1); mid-weight long underwear (1/2) and wool pants (1/2).
- 1 pair lower rain/wind shell or insulated ski pants or bibs
- Down or synthetics are fine; must fit over inner layers. These may be your typical snow pants or rain pants. We strongly recommend breathable fabrics.
- 1-2 pair light silk or polypro socks (optional)
- Worn as a lining sock under wool socks for comfort
- 2-3 pair wool socks.
- Wool "stretch" blends (85% wool) or wool-polypro blends are great. Should be heavy wool socks, not thinner variety.
- 1 bootie system (first choice) or 1 pair insulated boots (second choice) or 1 pair hiking boots (third choice)
- Appropriate footwear is necessary for traveling through the snow. A "bootie system" includes 2-3 pair of layering insulated synthetic slipper/booties for wearing around camp. Commonly a plush pile slipper which fits over socks, followed by a polarguard or down booty with a thick, insulated sole. A mukluk-sized outer layer is optional. Weight and warmth-wise, these are preferred to insulated boots. If using boots, slightly oversized boots are preferred to ones that barely fit, as circulation is most important to foot comfort. Person must be able to wear at least one pair of heavy wool socks inside an insulated boot without being tight. Sorels or equivalent with the heavy felt (removable) insulation are recommended.
- 1 pair nylon gaiters (recommended)
- Gaiters keep snow from traveling into your boots which will cause your feet to get very cold. When going into any snow over a couple inches deep, this single piece of equipment can be the difference between frostbite and warm-toasty feet.
- 1 pair polypro or wool liner gloves (recommended)
- 1 pair heavyweight gloves or mittens (ski gloves)
- These keep your hands warm while setting around camp and talking they may be substituted for 1 waterproof mitten shell or covering with two layers of insulating glove/mittens worn underneath
- Clothes organizing bag(s)
- To put all or most of the clothes in for easy packing. Most boys do a couple of small water-resistant bags of different colors to keep things straight, and perhaps one kitchen-sized garbage bag for clothes that have become "toxic."
For equipment, the most important consideration is quality. Cheap crap just won't cut it in the harsh winter environment. If you think it just might possibly break, it's guaranteed to fail on the first day.
- Sleeping bag
- Down or synthetic insulation, rated to an appropriate temperature (20° F) depending on individual preference. Synthetic is strongly recommended over down for scouts under First Class. Mummy or tapered bags only; no rectangular bags.
- insulating pad (optional but recommended)
- Closed-cell foam or open-cell foam inflatable (Thermarest) pad, 3/4 body length.
- Sleeping bag stuff sack (waterproof nylon).
- 1 Pocket knife
- 2 Large-mouth water bottle 1 qt. minimum each
- 1 Compass (optional)
- 1 Headlamp-style flashlight & 1 set spare batteries. Lithium batteries are a much better choice than other batteries for winter use.
- 1 Ditty bag containing insulated mug, bowl, utensils, toothbrush, toothpaste
- 1 Water-resistant wristwatch with alarm.
- Glasses or corrective lenses for boys who need them
- Not optional! Boys need to be able to see to play capture the flag, to navigate without getting lost, etc. Boys with glasses should consider glasses retaining straps. Glasses are strongly preferred over contacts, as maintaining contacts in a cold snow-filled environment is very challenging.
- Day pack (optional, depending on daytime activities)
- This must be larger than the average bookbag backpack. To be worn on day outings, with shovel, food, water, extra clothing.
Scouts do not need to worry about providing group gear. This section is just a reminder to patrol leaders and trip leaders of things to consider.
- Backcountry First Aid Kit(s)
- One for each traveling group. Include some chemical hot packs and a hypothermia thermometer.
- Backpacking (light weight) white gas stoves & repair kits
- One stove for every 3-4 people, one repair kit per stove, and at least one spare stove. Test stoves first in cold weather pre-trips; many manufacturers make crap. We recommend MSR or big Optimus (111) stoves.
- Stove insulating pads
- Made from thin plywood & ensolite pad, to put under stove so that stove doesn't melt its way through snow.
- White gas, bottles and funnel
- Don't use kerosene in the winter. One quart per stove per day, plus reserve.
- Backpacking cookware.
- The usual, though you're probably not going to do much baking. All pots need lids, one with pressure latches is useful for storing liquid water overnight.
- High-quality stowable shovels.
- At least 2-3 per patrol, or 1-2 per cook group.
- Snow saws